The larva starts mining near a leaf tip in early autumn. This early
mine approximates to being linear but is very erratic in its course.
In earl winter the the larva usually moves to anew leaf. This second
mine usually takes the form of a compact but irregularly brownish
blotch close to or often within the area of purplish discoloration
of the dying leaf tip. Occasionally the larva does not change mines
but extends the one made in autumn. Pupation takes place in a concealed
place amongst debris or between closely applied leaves (Bland and
generally at the underside of the leaf tip. From September till
the following spring a narrow meandering corridor is made. Then
gradually the corridor widens to nearly the full width of the leaf.
Generally the larvae make a new mine in early winter, obviously
without the initial corridor. The mine in this stage is brown and
situated close to (or within) the red coloured dying apical part
of the leaf. Frass in large elongate dark spots. Pupation external
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva has brownish head, black prothoracic plates and a greyish
white body with a greenish tinge (Bland and Knill-Jones, 1988).
full grown larva is greyish green, with a dark brown head and a
black prothoracic plate. Characteristic details of the prothoracic
plate are discussed by Steuer (1980a). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Described by Patocka (1999a), Patocka and Turcáni (2005a)
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
September - May the following year (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33),
East Suffolk (VC25), Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91),
Merionethshire (VC48), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), West Gloucestershire (VC34),
West Kent (VC16), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea) See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - North, Slovakia,
Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: