The narrow mine begins a few cm below the tip of the leaf and runs
downwards, sometimes along the leaf margin, sometimes in the center
of the leaf. After hibernation the larva probably begins a new,
similar mine, that becomes quite long, ending near the leaf base.
Frass in a brown, regularly interrupted line. Pupation external;
pupa attached to the leaf, not in a cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Yellowish white, head shining light brown; the prothoracic shield
consists of two greyish, triangular, widely separated sclerites.
Their shape and position is species-specific; see Steurer (1973a)
for an illustration (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
September - July; larva overwinters in the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36),
Kincardineshire (VC91), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), Staffordshire (VC39), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia - Central, North and
Northwest, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.