and Leaf-miner: A gall in the leaf petiole, later the mine is
in the leaf-blade, in a 'green island' (British
leafminers). Check fallen leaves.
egg lies on top of the midrib (rarely a thick lateral vein), mostly
c. one cm below the visible part of the mine, generally not far
from the base of the leaf. The larva at first hollows the midrib
(on the second picture from the top the far right, darkened, part
of the midrib has been mined out). Only in its last stage the larva
leaves the midrib and makes a triangular blotch, adjacent to the
midrib. When the larva isn't yet too large it retreats into the
midrib during feeding pauses. Partly caused by these movements the
frass usually lies in two stripes in a V-pattern, parallel to the
sides of the blotch. The mines often are found in yellowed leaves
in green islands, often in already Fallén leaves (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Pale yellow with a light brown head (British
leafminers). The larva is also illustrated in
Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July - November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Bedfordshire (VC30),
Cambridgeshire (VC29), Derbyshire (VC57), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Leicestershire (VC55),
Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32),
South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Kaliningrad
Region, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania,
Russia - Central, North and Northwest, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: