Leaf-miner: Egg at the upperside of the leaf, often near a vein. The mine is
a strongly contorted gallery, almost entirely filled with black
frass. Often many mines in a leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa). The mine is illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is a pale colour (British
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in a cocoon between the leaves, in captivity (British
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: November to April (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Initially in Greater London (2002)
- now spreading through southern England (British
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Corsica, Croatia,
Cyprus, Greek mainland, Italian mainland and Sicily (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.