and Leaf-miner: The initial mine is in the leaf petiole and later the mines
form green islands in the leaf (British
in the petiole, c. a cm below the base of the leaf. The larva begins
its life as a borer in the petiole, causing it to locally swell
somewhat. Once the larva has reached the leaf disc it begins forming
an elongate blotch between the leaf margin and the most lateral
vein, or, more rarely, between the midrib and the first lateral
vein. Frass in two stripes, parallel to the sides of the mine. Pupation
external. The larvae feed only at night, retreating within the petiole
at daytime. The larva can be lured into the mine by keeping the
leaf in the dark for a while (Borkowski, 1969a). The arrangement
of the frass in two stripes is the result of the regular movement
of the larva (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
yellow, no ventral plates; see Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a)
for a description (Bladmineerders van Europa)
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - November (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: South-east England including
leafminers); Bedfordshire (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map. The original mines were discovered in Suffolk by Jon Clifton and Tony Prichard. Shortly after this Neil Sherman found the mines on his site, in another part of Suffolk, which they originally thought were the mines of E. turbidella.
NBN Grid Map:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Germany,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Russia
- Central and South, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia. Also recorded in the
East Palaearctic and Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: