Leaf-miner: A gallery filled with frass, leading to blotch. The mined area
is purple-stained (British
at the upperside of the leaf, next to a major vein. The first part
of the mine is a narrow corridor, largely filled with frass, following
a vein and then making a hairpin turn. The corridor widens into
an elongate blotch with dispersed black frass in the base or along
the sides. Generally the leaf around the mine is intensely coloured
wine red over a large area, making the mines very conspicuous (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Dirty grey (young larvae more yellowish), head dark brown. Ganglia
conspicuous. Larva lies venter upwards in the mine. The larva is
described by Gustafsson and van Nieukerken (1990a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The mine is also illustrated in UKMoths.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: October - December (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: A [mainly] coastal species (British
leafminers) in south-east England including East Suffolk (VC25), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Isle of Wight (VC10), North Essex (VC19), South Hampshire
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Corsica,
Croatia, Cyprus, French mainland, Greek mainland, Italian mainland,
Portuguese mainland, Sicily, Slovenia, Spanish mainland and Switzerland.
Also recorded in North Africa (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: