and case-bearer: The larva constructs a distinctive dark brown case from fragments
of leaf (UKMoths).
The case is illustrated in British
brown, bivalved, composite leaf case, about 10 mm long, and composed
of 6-8 ringlets (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Described by Suire (1961a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Stachys officinalis is treated
as Betonica officinalis (Betony) by Stace (2010).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - May (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in June and July, but are not
often seen (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Now a very local species in
Britain, it was formerly more widespread but generally is restricted
to a few localities in southern England (UKMoths)
including North Essex (VC19), Surrey and West Sussex (VC26) (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania, Austria,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Poland, Romania,
Russia - South, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland and Switzerland,
Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.