and case-bearer: Initially feeds underside of the leaf making tiny holes in groups.
The larva feeds into November then overwinters attached to the angle
of a twig. In the spring and constructs a case as shown with a large
'pallium' of scales - the autumnal ones being blackish (British
full grown larva lives in a black pistol case of c. 8 mm, with a
mouth angle of c. 90°. The case is covered by a silken mantle
(pallium) that hangs from its rear end, and almost covers the case,
giving it the general aspect of a bird dropping. The larva mines
the leaf from the underside, making many, unusually small fleckmines,
up to about 30 together (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Described by Emmet et al (1996a); there are three pairs of abdominal prolegs (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: September - June (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including
Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19),
North Hampshire (VC12), North Wiltshire (VC7), Northamptonshire (VC32), Shropshire (VC40),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
local species preferring the sunny edges of woods and rides (British
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elsewhere: Widepread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic,
Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central and South,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The
Netherlands. Also recorded in the Near East (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: