The larva builds a 'pistol case' (UKMoths).
mature case is around 15mm long with a slightly swollen middle region,
being palest at the anal end (British
in a slender tubular silken case. The case is about 15 mm long,
yellow-grey, and trivalved. The mouth angle is about 0°-10°,
causing the case to lie flat on the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva lives two years (Emmet et al., 1996a).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera
Dissection Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June - July (May of the following year in
some cases) (British
of year - adults: June and July, but the species has a two-year
lifecycle, appearing every other year (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A scarce and very local species
which has a small number of tiny colonies in the south of England,
principally in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight (UKMoths);
Caernarvonshire and South Hampshire (NBN
and Portsmouth, Hants, VC11 (
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Latvia, Poland, Romania, Russia - South and Slovakia.
Also recorded in Near East (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: