and case-bearer: Larva mines leaves in autumn. Spring feeding is by grazing, usually
on the underside of larger leaves, or feeding on the edges of small
leaves. The full-grown case is black, pistol-shaped, 7 mm long (British
leafminers), rather like the closely related C.
ibipennella, which feeds on oak. Indeed, at one time they
were believed to be conspecific (UKMoths).
to hibernation the young larva makes full depth mines; in spring
window feeding takes place. In its final stage the larva lives in
a matt pistol case about 7 mm in length, that with a mouth angle
of 30°-45° is standing obliquely on the leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
case is also illustrated in the Encyclopedia of Life.
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Described by Suire (1961a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: Late August to October, feeding again from
April to May or early June (British
of year - adults: June and July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Distributed thinly in England
and Wales as far north as Cumbria, and occupies heathy habitats
where the foodplant grows (UKMoths)
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Suffolk (VC25), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
North Essex (VC19), South Wiltshire and West Kent (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See NDBC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and South,
Slovakia, Slovenia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: