larvae feed internally on the needles, overwintering in this stage
mine begins in the tip of a needle, and descends towards the base.
The larva hibernates in its first needle. After hibernation the
larva bores through the bud scales into the base of young needles,
causing them to drop. Pupation outside the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Reddish brown, c. 5 mm (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths
and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
September- June or July (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: July to September, the adults are attracted
to light (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widely distributed in England
and Wales (UKMoths)
including Anglesey (VC52), Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Denbighshire (VC50),
East Cornwall (VC2), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Huntingdonshire (VC31),
Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59),
South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1),
West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
recorded from the Republic of Ireland. See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in north-west Europe including Belgium,
Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany, Luxembourg and The Netherlands
(Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: