Leaf-miner: A relatively large, ribbed, oval egg is deposited near the base
of the needle, on the outer, convex, side. The emerging larva at
first makes a wavy, epidermal, corridor, running in the direction
of the needle tip. Soon the gallery becomes deeper and fills the
entire needle. The larva works itself to close to the tip of the
needle; the mine behind it is almost completely filled with frass.
Pupation external; the exit opening is just under the tip, in the
flat side of the needle Bladmineerders van Europa.
larva feeds internally in a needle, working its way from the base
to the tip. It may then feed externally in a slight web (UKMoths).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
During the mining phase the larva is orange red, but on emergence
is shiny green (British
larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupation in a white cocoon on the ground. The pupa is initially green, then
darkens as it matures (British
pupa is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths
and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: March - April (British
of year - adults: The adults fly in June and July, when they
can be attracted to light (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: A widespread but local species
occurring over much of England and Scotland in its favoured habitat,
pine woodland (UKMoths),
including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), East Cornwall (VC2), East Norfolk (VC27),
East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Herefordshire (VC36),
Kincardineshire (VC91), North Somerset (VC6), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3),
South Lancashire (VC59), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
Finland, Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia,
Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia
- Central, North and Northwest, Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden,
Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.