Leaf miner: The
mine begins as an inconspicuous, lower-surface, epidermal corridor.
This widens into a smallish triangular blotch, usually in the axil
of a vein; the mine is fairly transparant. Older larvae live free,
in in a lobe of the leaf that has been forced downwards and rolled
into a cone. In the course of its development the larva makes three
(rarely two) of such cones, ascending in size, on the same leaf
or not; the first is no more than a downfolded leaf margin. Pupation
in a membranaceous, yellowish cocoon at the underside of a leaf
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Greenish, head lighter (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva initially in a small mine, but later folding the leaf and
feeding within (UKMoths).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
See Patocka and Zach (1995a) or Patocka and Turcáni (2005a)
for a description (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June-July (British
of year - adults: The moths emerge in August and overwinter,
reappearing in the following spring (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: The species was only discovered
in Britain in 1970, and had a scattered northern and eastern distribution,
but is now expanding its range and is fairly common in much of England,
including Bedford (Studham) and Scotland (UKMoths);
Ayrshire (VC74), Banffshire (VC94), Bedfordshire (VC30), Breconshire (VC42), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cumberland (VC70),
Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106),
East Suffolk (VC25), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Elgin, Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Isle of Wight (VC10), Kincardineshire (VC91), Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35),
North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), South Northumberland (VC67), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28),
West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway). See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded from the Republic of Ireland. See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, French mainland, Germany,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland,
Poland, Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Slovakia,
Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland and The Netherlands (Karsholt
and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: