Leaf-miner: The larvae initially form mines in leaves, later forming a cone
by rolling the leaf downwards from the tip (UKMoths).
brown to rust-coloured lower-surface blotch, mostly near the midrib.
Towards the end of the mining activity silk is deposited in the
mine; this causes the mine to contract, folding the leaf over the
mine. Frass packed in a corner of the mine. After some time the
larva vacates the mine and lives free then in a leaf tip that has
been rolled downwards and fixed with silk. Two of such cones are
made and eaten out from the inside. Pupation in a membranous, shining
cocoon at the underside of a leaf (Bladmineerders van Europa).
mine is also illustrated in British
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Described by SCS Brown (1947a) (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
In a cocoon under a white membrane; underside of leaf (British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
genitalia, but not the female genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June, September (British
of year - adults: 2-3 generations from May to October (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: This moth is an adventive species,
probably introduced with azalea and rhodedendron plants, that is
now spreading throughout Britain including Lancaster (Greater Manchester,
Hampshire (Fleet) (British
leafminers); Bedfordshire (VC30), Berkshire (VC22), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Cornwall (VC2),
East Kent (VC15), East Suffolk (VC25), Glamorganshire (VC41), Hertfordshire (VC20), Middlesex (VC21), North Wiltshire (VC7), South Devon (VC3), South Lancashire (VC59), Surrey (VC17), West Cornwall (VC1),
West Kent (VC16), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany, Italian mainland,
Luxembourg, Madeira, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Russia - Central,
Slovakia, Sweden and The Netherlands (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: