Leaf-miner: The mine is a short contorted gallery close to the midrib of
a leaf, containing broken black frass (UKMoths).
at the upperside of the leaf, generally adjacent to the midrib.
The mine is a short, angular corridor with much black frass and
a relatively large larval chamber. The larvae soon leave their mines
and start causing lower-surface window feeding Bladmineerders van Europa.
leaf-mine is also illustrated in British
Multiple mines can occur in the same leaf. Melissa Banthorpe found 14 mines in one leaf (see Facebook Group).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
Head brown, pronotum grey with black punctuation (Hering, 1957a) (Bladmineerders van Europa. The larva is illustrated in UKMoths
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
When pupating, in common with other Bucculatrix species,
the larva creates a distinctive ribbed cocoon surrounded by a 'palisade'
of vertical silken hairs (UKMoths).
The pupa and cocoon are illustrated in British
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths by Rob Edmunds.
genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: July, September - October (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: A fairly common species in England,
including Lancaster (Greater Manchester and Littleborough) (UKMoths)
and Hampshire (Fleet and Hayling Island) (British
leafminers), Wales and Scotland, though like many of its genus
probably overlooked (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
Cheshire (VC58), Derbyshire (VC57), County Durham (VC66), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sussex (VC14), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Leicestershire (VC55),
Merionethshire (VC48), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), Northamptonshire (VC32),
Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Hampshire (VC11), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded from Ireland (UKMoths). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belarus, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia,
European Turkey, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Greek mainland,
Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia,
Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia Central, East and Northwest,
Sardinia, Sicily, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: