Leaf-miner: Early mine a silvery gallery in lower epidermis. Subsequently
a blotch on the upper epidermis. Internal spinning causes the leaf
to pucker and often fold over the blotch, concealing it (British
mine starts as a long, tortuous, lower-surface (rarely upper-surface)
epidermal, silvery corridor. After a moult the larva works itself
to the upper surface of the leaf and begins to make a blotch, soon
a tentiform mine, astride the midrib. The mine contracts very strongly,
causing the epidermis to develop strong folds, and the leaf to double,
almost concealing the mine. Shortly before pupation the larva gnaws
a window in the floor of the mine, leaving only the lower epidermis
intact, as a preformed exit opening. Larvae that have hibernated
generally leave their mine, and make a new tentiform mine elsewhere
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
Pupa in a white fusiform cocoon in the mine (British
The adult is illustrated UKMoths and the Encyclopedia
of Life. The male
and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: June-July, October-April (British
of year - adults: There are two generations in the year, the
adults being on the wing in May and again in August. The second
generation overwinters as a larva (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including Chester
and Hampshire (UKMoths);
Bedfordshire (VC30), Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Carmarthenshire (VC44),
Cheshire (VC58), Cumberland (VC70), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Cornwall (VC2), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25), Easterness (VC96),
Elgin, Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Kincardineshire (VC91), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), North Aberdeenshire (VC93), North Ebudes (VC104), North Essex (VC19),
North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Cornwall (VC1), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26), Westmorland (VC69) and
Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
Gateway), and the Channel Is. (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea). Also South Hampshire (British
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
recorded in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland (Karsholt and van Nieukerken
in Fauna Europaea). See also Ireland's NBDC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish
mainland, Dodecanese Is., Estonia, Faroe Is., Finland, French mainland,
Germany, Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Liechtenstein,
Lithuania, Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese mainland,
Romania, Russia - Central, Northwest and South, Sardinia, Sicily,
Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands,
Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Apanteles chrysis Nixon, 1973
|Microgaster messoria Haliday, 1834
|Pholetesor bicolor (Nees, 1834)
|Campoplex jaeckhi (Bauer, 1936)
|Campoplex pyraustae Smith, 1931
|Campoplex tumidulus Gravenhorst, 1829
|Diadegma elishae (Bridgman, 1884)
|Diadegma exareolator Aubert, 1964
|Diadegma holopygum (Thomson, 1887)
|Encrateola laevigata (Ratzeburg, 1848)
|Gelis agilis (Fabricius, 1775)
|Theroscopus esenbeckii (Gravenhorst, 1815)
|Itoplectis maculator (Fabricius, 1775)