The larvae mines several leaves out, working from the base to the
tip. It migrates to the next leaf by way of a short corridor in
the bark of the twig. The larva therefore does not need to make
openings in the needles for entrance or exit. Pupation external,
in a spinning on the twig (Bladmineerders van Europa).
The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
The larva of abdominalis has the body orange brown, spotted reddish brown. Head black, prothoracic
plate dark grey, spotted black (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is not illustrated in UKMoths (check for update). The female
genitalia, but not the male genitalia (check for update), are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae:
March - April (Hering, 1957).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Britain including North Hampshire (VC12), South Wiltshire and West Sussex (VC26) (NBN
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium,
Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland,
French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Luxembourg,
? Macedonia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Romania, Russia North,
Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van
Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: