Leaf-miner: The initial mine is a short gallery at the leaf edge, which expands
to from a blotch. The larva cuts out an oval case 4-5.5 mm long
leafminers), in which it subsequently lives amongst leaf litter
on the ground (UKMoths).
Oviposition usually close to the leaf margin. From there starts
a corridor of about 1 cm; it contains much frass, is often somehat
tortuous in its beginning and as a role closely follows the leaf
margin. After a moult the direction reverses (picture) and the larva
starts making a full depth blotch that can become several cm long
and wide. Here the frass is lying in scattered grains. The full
grown larva covers an oval section at the margin of the blotch with
a light brown pergamon-like layer of silk, cuts this loose and drops
within it to the ground. The excision that is made is about 4-4.5
mm long. Contrary to metallella the female does not makes test punctures before ovipsition (Dziursynski,
1958a; Heath and Pelham-Clinton, 1976a). Also contrary to metallella the larva has a row of black spots on all abdominal segments, easily
visible without opening the mine. (The larva lies belly-up in the
mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).
larval case is also illustrated in British
leafminers and UKMoths.
Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).
The adult is illustrated in UKMoths.
The genitalia are not illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection
Group (check for update).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - larvae: August until early October (UKMoths;
of year - adults: June and July (UKMoths).
in Great Britain & Ireland: Occurs locally in parts of southern
England, including Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), Herefordshire (VC36), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12),
North Somerset (VC6), Northamptonshire (VC32), South Wiltshire (VC8), Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
See also British
leafminers distribution map.
NBN Grid Map:
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions
Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Albania,
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany,
Greek mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Macedonia, Poland, Romania,
Slovakia, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Ukraine (Karsholt and
van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: