The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Acrolepia autumnitella Curtis, 1838
[Lepidoptera: Acrolepiidae]

Bittersweet Smudge


Tortrix pygmeana Haworth, 1811
Acrolepia autumnitella Curtis, 1838. Brit. Ent. 15: 679
Haemilis lefebvriella Duponchel, 1838. Hist. Nat. Lep. 11: t. 290, fig. 11
Roeslerstammia heleniella Zeller, 1839. Isis: 203
Tinea submontana Osthelder, 1951. Beilage Mitt. münchen ent. Ges. 41: 241.


Leaf-miner: The larvae forms large whitish or translucent blotches (UKMoths).

Rather large, untidy blotch, full-depth for most of its surface, very transparent, without feeding lines and without association with midrib or leaf margin. The larva makes several mines. Often only its anterior part is inserted in the mine, that remains free of frass then. Pupation outside the mine in a silk cocoon (Bladmineerders van Europa).

The mine is also illustrated in British leafminers.

Larva: The larvae of moths have a head capsule and chewing mouthparts with opposable mandibles (see video of a gracillarid larva feeding), six thoracic legs and abdominal legs (see examples).

The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa, British leafminers and UKMoths.

Pupa: The pupae of moths have visible head appendages, wings and legs which lie in sheaths (see examples).

The pupa is illustrated in British leafminers and UKMoths and is formed in a cocoon fashioned from a network of silk.

Adult: The adult is illustrated in UKMoths. The male and female genitalia are illustrated by the Lepidoptera Dissection Group.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Solanaceae        
Atropa belladona Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Atropa belladona Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Plant in Pitkin & Plant 2005
Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Plant in Pitkin & Plant 2005

Hosts elsewhere:

Solanaceae        
Atropa       Bladmineerders van Europa
Atropa belladona Deadly Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Belgian Lepidoptera
Physalis alkekengi     Bladmineerders van Europa
Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Biodiversity Heritage Library
Belgian Lepidoptera
Solanum dulcamara Bittersweet / Woody Nightshade British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - larvae: June, September (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: The adults generally emerge in two generations, firstly in July and then in October, the second brood overwintering in this stage (UKMoths).

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: A small inconspicuous species, distributed mainly in the southern half of England, with a few scattered records further north, although it is probably overlooked (UKMoths); Bedfordshire (VC30), Buckinghamshire (VC24), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57), East Kent (VC15), East Norfolk (VC27), East Suffolk (VC25), East Sussex (VC14), Flintshire (VC51), Glamorganshire (VC41), Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Isle of Wight (VC10), Middlesex (VC21), North Essex (VC19), North Hampshire (VC12), North Somerset (VC6), North Wiltshire (VC7), Pembrokeshire (VC45), Shropshire (VC40), South Lancashire (VC59), South Somerset (VC5), South Wiltshire (VC8), Staffordshire (VC39), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Norfolk (VC28), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway). Also Yardley Chase, Northants (British leafminers).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (NBDC interactive map.

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Acrolepia autumnitella
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Corsica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, Finland, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Russia - Central, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, The Netherlands and Yugoslavia (Karsholt and van Nieukerken in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Atropa belladona, Solanum dulcamara

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Dolichogenidea imperator (Wilkinson, 1939) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Dolichogenidea infima (Haliday, 1834) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Dolichogenidea sicaria (Marshall, 1885) Braconidae: Microgastrinae
Campoplex pyraustae Smith, 1931 Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae
Diadegma melanium (Thomson, 1887) Ichneumonidae: Campopleginae


External links: Search the internet:
Belgian Lepidoptera
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
Encyclopedia of Life
British leafminers
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Biodiverity
UKMoths
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Last updated 28-Jul-2016  Brian Pitkin Top of page