1 > Stem-mine: Oviposition normally takes place near the base of the stem. Larva
forming external stem-mine, feeding first upwards for as much as
30 cm, then turning and continuing downwards. A number of larvae
may feed in a single stem and young plants may turn yellow and die.
Pupation immediately beneath the epidermis (Spencer,
in the rind of the stem, just above the ground. A corridor from
there runs upwards for about 30 cm, then reverts and descends to
about ground level. Pupation in the mine, just below the epidermis.
Usually several mines on one plant; the plant can effectively be
ringed and be killed (Bladmineerders van Europa).