The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851. Rev. Mag. Zool : (2)3: 147
Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 483
Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Griffiths, 1973a. Quaestiones ent. 9: 222
Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 8, 71, 74 (fig. 248), 79, 81.
Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 506-8, figs 884-6.
Phytomyza spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, 1851; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 160, 165, 167, 174 (figs 653-4), 175, 177.


Leaf-mine: A conspicuous, whitish linear mine. Pupation external (Spencer, 1976: 506, 507 (fig. 886)).

Long, upper-surface, frequently branched, little widening corridor; sides somehwat irregular. Often several mines in a leaf. Frass in grains that are placed close together, rarely forming short pearl chains. Pupation outside the mine, exit slit in lower epidermis. Sometime the puparium sticks to the leaf. Feeding punctures in lower epidermis ( Bladmineerders van Europa as Phytomyza pastinacae / spondylii).

Larva forms a conspicuous, whitish linear mine. Larva leaves the mine through the lower surface and falls from the leaf on pupation (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva of Phytomyza pastinacae / spondylii is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Shining black; posterior spiracles each with 16-26 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 506). The puparium of Phytomyza pastinacae / spondylii is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Orchestes fagi larva,  dorsal
Phytomyza pastinacae / spondyli puparium
Image: © Willem Ellis (Bladmineerders van Europa)

Comments: Spencer (1972b: 79) treated pastinacae Hendel as a junior synonym of spondylii Robineau-Desvoidy, although later he treated pastinacae as a distinct species (Spencer, 1990: 175). Both are recorded on Pastinaca and Heracleum in Europe and currently can only be distinguished by the male genitalia. Records on Astrantia in Britain are based on samples from Botanical Gardens. Most British records of both species require confirmation.

Host records given in Bladmineerders van Europa include both Phytomyza pastinacae and Phytomyza spondylii.

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
? Astrantia sp.     Spencer, 1972b: 121
? Astrantia sp.     British leafminers
? Astrantia bieberstedtii     British leafminers
? Astrantia bieberstedtii     Mines in BMNH
? Astrantia carniolica Carnic Masterwort   British leafminers
? Astrantia carniolica Carnic Masterwort   Mines in BMNH
? Heracleum       Mines in BMNH
? Heracleum       Robbins, 1991: 67
? Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
? Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
? Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
? Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
? Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121
? Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bland, 1992
? Pastinaca       Robbins, 1991: 67
? Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
? Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
? Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Heracleum       Spencer, 1990: 160
Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 506
? Heracleum mantegazzianum Giant Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
? Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Heracleum sphondylium Hogweed British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 506
Heracleum sibiricum     Spencer, 1976: 506
? Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum     Bladmineerders van Europa
Levisticum       Spencer, 1990: 160
? Levisticum officinale Lovage   Bladmineerders van Europa
Pastinaca       Spencer, 1990: 160
? Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Pastinaca sativa Wild Parsnip British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 506

Time of year - mines: May-November.

Time of year - adults: June the following year.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread and common throughout the British Isles (Spencer, 1972b: 79), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992), Warwickshire (Longford) (Robbins, 1991: 67); Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Kent (VC15), East Ross (VC106), East Sutherland (VC107), Flintshire (VC51), Herefordshire (VC36), Linlithgow, Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), North Lincolnshire (VC54), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), Shropshire (VC40), South Essex (VC18), South Somerset (VC5), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey (VC17), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Norfolk (VC28), and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea). See NDBC interactive map.

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phytomyza spondylii
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 506), The Netherlands (de Meijere, 1924), Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 578), ? Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Spanish mainland and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada and the U.S.A. (Spencer, 1976: 506).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Heracleum mantegazzianum, Heracleum sibiricum, ? Heracleum sphondylium, ? Heracleum sphondylium subsp. sibiricum, ? Levisticum officinale, Pastinaca sativa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis viridis (Nees, 1934) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Glyphognathus convexus (Delucchi, 1953) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster maculata Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Seladerma sabbas (Walker, 1848) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Sphaeripalpus fuscipes (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa laevipectus Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela cyclogaster Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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