Leaf-mine: Oviposition takes place at the base of the petiole in a young leaf.
Larva initially feeds in mid-rib, later producing characteristic
irregular upper surface linear-blotch. Pupation internal (Spencer, 1972b: 81; Spencer, 1976:
in May-June, in the underside of the petiole or midrib of a young
leaf, leaves a clear scar. In the course of the following months
the larva tunnels in the midrib in the direction of the leaf tip.
Only in December-January it enters the leaf blade, where the fist
moult takes place. The larva then makes an interparenchymatous blotch
in the blade, in the middle layer of the (three cell layers thick)
palisade parenchyma. Most frass is deposited in the centre of the
blotch; here the epidermis often turns wine red. Often tha larva,
not long before pupation, descends into the upper layers of the
sponge parenchyma, and makes a large blotch there. This second mine,
despite its size, is quite inconspicuous because there is no discolouration
whatever. Pupation is within the mine, upper-surface, but lower-surface
when a second blotch has been made. The anterior spiracles penetrate
the epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Initially in mid-rib then upper surface blotch. Only miner on Holly. Widespread throughout. The early mine is green (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by de Meijere (1926)
and Dempewolf (2001: 189). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa and British
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: April-November.
of year - adults: A single generation each year.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread
throughout Britain including Ayrshire (VC74),
Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cardiganshire (VC46), Cheshire (VC58), Denbighshire (VC50), Derbyshire (VC57),
Dorset (VC9), East Gloucestershire (VC33), East Norfolk (VC27), East Ross (VC106), East Suffolk (VC25),
East Sussex (VC14), East Sutherland (VC107), Easterness (VC96), Edinburgh, Elgin, Flintshire (VC51),
Glamorganshire (VC41), Haddington, Herefordshire (VC36), Hertfordshire (VC20), Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64),
Middlesex (VC21), Monmouthshire (VC35), North Essex (VC19), North Somerset (VC6), North-east Yorkshire (VC62), Roxburghshire (VC80), Shropshire (VC40), South Aberdeenshire (VC92), South Devon (VC3), South Essex (VC18), South Lancashire (VC59), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39),
Surrey (VC17), Warwickshire (VC38), West Gloucestershire (VC34), West Kent (VC16), West Lancashire (VC60),
West Norfolk (VC28), West Ross, West Suffolk (VC26), West Sussex (VC13), West Sutherland (VC109),
Westerness (VC97), Westmorland (VC69) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN
(Spencer, 1972b: 81), Rum
(Bland in Whiteley, 1994), Hampshire (Fleet) (British
leafminers), Warwickshire (Tile Hill) (Robbins,
recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Dublin and Co. Kerry (Spencer, 1972b). See NDBC interactive map.
NBN Grid Map:
interactive distribution map(s) of known host species in Britain:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark,
Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976:
433), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991),
Germany (Spencer, 1976: 574;
Dempewolf, 2001: 189),
Italian mainland, Sicily and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
into western Canada and the north-west U.S.A. (Spencer,
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:
|Achrysocharoides latreillii (Curtis 1826)
gemma (Walker, 1839)
|Chrysocharis nephereus (Walker, 1839)
pentheus (Walker, 1839)
pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838)
trifasciatus Westwood, 1833
metallicus (Nees, 1834)
|Pediobius albipes (Provancher 1887)
|Pnigalio minio (Walker 1847)
vulgaris Walker, 1833
pallicornis (Spinola, 1808)
|Mauleus iligneus Heydon 1995
|Epiclerus nomocerus (Masi, 1934)
|Opius pulchriceps Szépligeti 1898
|Phaedrotoma pulchriceps (Szépligeti, 1898)