long, linear, upper or lower surface, often adjoining a vein (Spencer, 1972b: 74 (fig. 244), 79).
corridor, often following the midrib for some distance. The mine
is upper- or lower-surface; often the first part lower-surface,
then upper-surface. Frass in pearl chains or isolated granules.
Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The white larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
The black puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: July-August.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain - Surrey
(Cosford Mill, Godalming) Cambridgeshire (Chippenham Fen), Norfolk
(Norwich), Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd) (Spencer, 1972b: 79) and Warwickshire (Fazeley and Hawkesbury) (Robbins,
1991: 113); Cambridgeshire (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991),
Czech Republic, French mainland, Germany, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: