The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza crassiseta Zetterstedt, 1860
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza crassiseta Zetterstedt, 1860. Dipt. Scand. 14: 6469
Phytomyza crassiseta Zetterstedt, 1860; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 387
Phytomyza crassiseta Zetterstedt, 1860; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 71, 82, 83 (figs 270-1), 120
Phytomyza crassiseta Zetterstedt, 1860; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 408, figs 713-5
Phytomyza crassiseta Zetterstedt, 1860; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 222, 224, 225 (figs 843-5).


Leaf-mine: Mine normally begins along margin of leaf, sometimes later developing into a secondary blotch. Pupation takes place on the lower surface of the leaf, with the anterior spiracles normally projecting through the epidermis (Spencer, 1972b: 82, 83 (fig. 271).

Wide upper-surface corridor. The first part closely follows the leaf margin. Later the margin is released, often then the corridor is so densely wound that a secondary blotch is formed. Finally a short short stretch is made that ends in a lower-surface pupariuml chamber. Frass in isolated grains or pearl chains (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Forms a narrow mine which follows the leaf margin, then turns and forms a secondary blotch. Pupation is in the mine (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926 and 1941) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa ; posterior spiracles each with approx. 8 bulbs.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa. Slender, white or yellowish, with a conspicuous dark band running centrally along the ventral surface (Spencer, 1972b: 82; Spencer, 1976: 408).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Scrophulariaceae        
Veronica       Mines in BMNH
Veronica       Robbins, 1991: 99
Veronica chamaedrys Germander Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Veronica chamaedrys Germander Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1983: 25
Veronica chamaedrys Germander Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Veronica montana Wood Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120
Veronica officinalis Heath Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Veronica officinalis Heath Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120

Hosts elsewhere:

Scrophulariaceae        
Veronica       Spencer, 1976
Veronica       Spencer, 1990: 222
Veronica agrestis Green Field-speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica anagallis-aquatica Blue Water-Speedwell   Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica arvensis Wall Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica austriaca Large Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as austriaca subsp. teucrium

Veronica chamaedrys Germander Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica filiformis Slender Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica hederifolia Ivy-leaved Speedwel British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica longifolia Garden Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica officinalis Heath Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica orientalis     Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica persica Common Field-speedwell   Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica prostrata Prostrate Speedwell   Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica rhodopea     Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica scutellata Marsh Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica spicata Spiked Speedwell British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica trehani     Bladmineerders van Europa
Veronica urticifolia Nettle-leaved Speedwell   Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-July, September-November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Surrey (Mickleham), Devon (Bolt Head), Huntingdonshire (Woodwalton Fen), Cambridgeshire (Chippenham Fen), Dunbarton (Spencer, 1972b: 82), Warwickshire (Foleshill) (Robbins, 1991: 99); Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Ross (VC106), Easterness (VC96), North Somerset (VC6), South Devon (VC3), South Wiltshire (VC8), Surrey and West Sussex (VC26) (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Burren), Co. Down (Rostrevor Wood) and Co. Galway (Galway) (Spencer, 1972b: 82).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phytomyza crassiseta
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Common throughout much of Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 408); The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 570), Belarus, Canary Is., Czech Republic, Estonia, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Spanish mainland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Also present in the U.S.A. and Canada, almost certainly as an introduction (Spencer, 1990).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Veronica agrestis, Veronica anagallis-aquatica, Veronica arvensis, Veronica austriaca, Veronica chamaedrys, Veronica filiformis, Veronica hederifolia, Veronica longifolia, Veronica persica, Veronica montana, Veronica officinalis, Veronica scutellata, Veronica spicata

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea   
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cyrtogaster vulgaris Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Seladerma tarsale (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus alecto (Morley, 1924) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus amasis (Nixon, 1945) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa melicerta (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa veronicae Griffiths, 1967 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Grammospila rufiventris (Nees, 1812) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Opius levis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma exigua Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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