The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920. Arch. Naturgesch. 84A(7) (1918): 152
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Hendel, 1935. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 384
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 70 (fig. 226), 73, 113, 114
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 406-8, figs 711-712.
Phytomyza conyzae Hendel, 1920; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 271, 272 (fig. 1032) 273, 283, 305, 309.


Leaf-mine: An irregularly linear mine which can be both on the upper and lower leaf surface. Pupation takes place either at the end of the mine in an exit slit cut in the leaf or on the ground (Spencer, 1972b: 70 (fig. 226), 73; Spencer, 1976: 407 (fig. 712), 408).

Upper surface corridor, often following the midrib for some distance. Frequently the very first part of the mine is lower-surface, and sometimes the entire mine remains at the lower surface. The corridor is wide from the start, with irregular sides. Frass initially in two rows of fine grains; further on the grains become larger and more irregular, sometimes forming pearl chains, and are dispersed less regularly. Pupation takes place either outside or within the mine. When the larva has left the mine a semicircular exit slit is made. When the puparium is formed within the mine the spiracles do not penetrate the epidermis, and an irregular semicircular opening is made in the epidermis in front of the puparium (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Mines down the leaf from the tip, then doubles back and then mines towards the apex, often doubling back a second time, towards the leaf base (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by de Meijere (1926).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Black or dark brown; posterior spiracles each having 17-19 bulbs Spencer, 1976: 408).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Apiaceae        
Inula       British leafminers
Inula       Mines in BMNH
Inula       Robbins, 1983: 25
Inula conyzae Ploughman's-spikenard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Inula conyzae Ploughman's-spikenard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Inula conyzae Ploughman's-spikenard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113
Inula magnifica Giant Fleabane   Mines in BMNH
Pulicaria       Robbins, 1991: 111
Pulicaria dysenterica Common Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Pulicaria dysenterica Common Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Pulicaria dysenterica Common Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 114

Hosts elsewhere:

Apiaceae        
Anaphalis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Arnica       Spencer, 1990: 309
Arnica montana     Spencer, 1976: 407
Arnica montana     Bladmineerders van Europa
Buphthalmum salicifolium Willow-leaved Yellow Oxeye   Bladmineerders van Europa
Conyza bonariensis Argentine Fleabane   Bladmineerders van Europa
Conyza canadensis Canadian Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Dittrichia graveolens Stinking Fleabane   Bladmineerders van Europa
Dittrichia viscosa Woody Fleabane   Bladmineerders van Europa
Inula       Spencer, 1976: 407
Inula       Spencer, 1990: 273
Inula candida     Bladmineerders van Europa
Inula conyzae Ploughman's-spikenard British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Inula crithmoides Golden-samphire British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Inula ensifolia     Bladmineerders van Europa
Inula hirta     Bladmineerders van Europa
Inula oculus-christi Hairy Fleabane   Bladmineerders van Europa
Pallenis       Spencer, 1990: 273
Pallenis       Bladmineerders van Europa
Pulicaria       Spencer, 1990: 273
Pulicaria dysenterica Common Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1976: 407
Pulicaria dysenterica Common Fleabane British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Telekia       Spencer, 1990: 273
Telekia speciosa Yellow Oxeye British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-October.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in south, also Denbighshire (nr Wrexham) (Spencer, 1972b: 73), Warwickshire (Hawkesbury) (Robbins, 1991: 111); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Denbighshire (VC50),
Derbyshire (VC57), East Gloucestershire (VC33), Glamorganshire (VC41), North Somerset (VC6), South Somerset (VC5), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Staffordshire (VC39), Surrey and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Wexford (Rosslare) (Spencer, 1972b: 73).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Phytomyza conyzae
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark and Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 407), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Scheirs, de Bruyn and Verdyck, 1993), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 570), Albania, Austria, Balearic Is., Corsica, Czech Republic, Dodecanese Is., European Turkey, French mainland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portuguese mainland, Romania, Sardinia, Sicily, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

Particularly common in the Mediterranean area (Spencer, 1976: 407).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Buphthalmum salicifolium, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza canadensis, Dittrichia viscosa, Dittrichia graveolens, Inula conyzae, Inula crithmoides, Inula oculus-christi, Inula magnifica, Pulicaria dysenterica, Telekia speciosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis entedonoides (Walker, 1872) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Seladerma diffine (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Epiclerus panyas (Walker, 1839) Tetracampidae: Tetracampinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Dacnusa pubescens (Curtis, 1926) Braconidae: Alysiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa

British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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