feeding in the mid-rib, which can swell basally, gall-like, and
is frequently accompanied by reddish discolouration (Spencer,
in a corridor in the base of the midrib, causing the midrib to swell
as a gall. Pupation takes place in the mine, close to an ready made,
upper-surface, exit opening (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall. The larvae lie on their sides within the mine and use their pick-like mouthparts to feed on plant tissue.
Described by Hering (1957b); posterior spiuracles with 14 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: April-May. Mines can be found at the end of
April in the basal rosette of leaves before the appearance of the
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including
Kent (Westerham), Surrey (Buckland, Chiddingfold), Hertfordshire (Scratch
Wood), Dorset (Lyme Regis), Dunbartonshire (VC99), Glamorgan (Gower peninsula)
(Spencer, 1972b: 88), Warwickshire
(Keresley) (Robbins, 1991:
124); Cambridgeshire (VC29), Glamorganshire (VC41) and Westmorland (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Mullagh More) (Spencer, 1972b: 88).
NBN Grid Map:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Norway, Germany
(Spencer, 1976: 400), French
mainland, Poland and Sweden (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: