calthophila Hering, 1931
calthophila Hering, 1931b. Z. PflKrankh. 41:
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Hendel, 1934. Fliegen
palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 368
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk
ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 91 (fig. 313), 94, 118
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna
ent. Scand. 5 (1): 396-7, figs 692-4
Phytomyza calthophila Hering, 1931b; Spencer, 1990. Host
specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 21, 23,
25 (figs 43-5), 169, 207.
forming a long, narrow, upper surface mine. Pupation external (Spencer, 1972b: 91 (fig. 313); Spencer,
1976: 394 (fig. 694), 395).
upper-surface, parallel-sided corridor, pale green, later browned.
The corridor is little contorted and hardly branching. Frass in
gradually coarser grains. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit in
lower epidermis (Hering, 1957) or upper epidermis (Pakalniskis,
2004a) - see Bladmineerders van Europa.
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by de Meijere (1926, as nigritella). posterior spiracles strikingly large, bifid, with two long arms.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Brown; posterior spiracles greatly enlarged, each with 40 minute
bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 395).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: July, September.
of year - adults: August.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread but local. Wiltshire
(Corsham), Cambridge (Whittelstone), Norfolk (Norwich), Westmorland
(Grasmere), Yorkshire (Malham Tarn) (Spencer, 1972b: 94), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland,
1992), Warwickshire (Sutton Park) (Robbins,
1991); East Ross (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Spencer, 1972b: 94).
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden
(Spencer, 1976: 396), The
Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de
Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Germany (Spencer,
1976: 570), Czech Republic, Lithuania and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: