The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds


Phytomyza affinis Fallén, 1823
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Phytomyza affinis Fallén, 1823b. Phytomyzides et Ochtidiae Sveciae : 3
Phytomyza affinis Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 84, 85 (fig. 277), 120
Phytomyza affinis Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 369-70, figs 642-643
Phytomyza affinis Fallén, 1823b; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) :222, 226 (fig. 853), 227.

Seed-feeder: Larvae feeding in seeds (Spencer, 1972b); pupation external (Bland, 1992).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain and Ireland:

Euphrasia       Bland, 1992
Euphrasia brevipila     Spencer, 1972b: 120
Euphrasia micrantha Common Slender Eyebright   Spencer, 1972b: 120
Euphrasia nemorosa Common Eyebright British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 120

Hosts elsewhere:

Euphrasia       Spencer, 1976: 369
Euphrasia       Spencer, 1990: 222

Time of year - larvae: August.

Time of year - adults: August and July.

Distribution in Great Britain and Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll) (Bland, 1992); Pembrokeshire and Surrey (NBN Atlas).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare (Burren) (Spencer, 1972b: 84).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland (Spencer, 1976: 369), Germany (Spencer, 1976: 566), Austria, Belgium ? Corsica, Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Iceland, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Madeira, Poland, Sardinia, Slovakia and The Netherlands (Fauna Europaea).

Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 225).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Euphrasia brevipila, Euphrasia micrantha, Euphrasia nemorosa

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pubicornis (Zetterstedt, 1838) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Diglyphus isaea (Walker, 1838) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Eurytoma aspila (Walker, 1836) Eurytomidae: Eurytominae
Seladerma tarsale (Walker, 1833) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Dibrachys microgastri (Bouché, 1834) Pteromalidae: Pteromalinae
Ichneumonoidea - Links to species no longer available  
Coloneura stylata Förster, 1862 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa euphrasiella Griffiths, 1984 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa nigropygmaea Stelfox, 1954 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa tarsalis Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Orthostigma pumilum (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Orthostigma pumilum (Nees, 1834) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Colastes braconius Haliday, 1833 Braconidae: Exothecinae
Apodesmia similis (Szépligeti, 1898) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius orbiculator (Nees, 1811) Braconidae: Opiinae
Rhogadopsis reconditor Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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