mine restricted by leaf veins; frass in irregular lumps.
mine begins at the leaf underside, close to a heavy vein, at a white
egg shall that remains in place even in fully developed mines. Often
several eggs at distances of about 1 cm along the vein. Each larva
makes a large blotch without a preceding corridor. Almost all frass
is concentrated in a big mass in the the initial part of the mine.
In this part the mine is lower-surface (therefore one sees green
leaf tissue overlying the frass mass), but further on the mine is
upper-surface, in fact almost full depth and very transparant. In
fresh mines remnants of the parenchyma are visible as secondary
feeding lines. Often the older mines coalesce. Pupation outside
the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Forms a large blotch mine, which may contain several larvae, on the leaf upper surface. The white eggs are laid close to a vein (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Ackland in Chandler (1978)
did not indicate whether his host record was British or Foreign
and is therefore included under 'Hosts in Britain' and 'Hosts elsewhere
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines:
June-July (Hering, 1957). Summer (British
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: England including Warwickshire
(Merevale) (Robbins, 1991:
110); Berkshire (VC22), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Herefordshire (VC36), North Somerset (VC6), Oxfordshire (VC23) and West Gloucestershire (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including The Netherlands
(Bladmineerders van Europa), Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, ? Finland, French
mainland, Germany, Poland, Romania, Russia - Central and Sweden
(Michelsen in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.