The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Parallelomma paridis (Hering, 1923)
[Diptera: Scathophagidae]


Parallelomma paridis (Hering, 1923). Dt. ent. Z. 1923(2): 200.


Comments: Sifner (1978) synonymised Parallelomma paridis (and other species) with Paralellomma vittatum. According to Chandler (pers. comm., following Collin, who separated the adults on colour) Parallelomma paridis is a good species (on Liliaceae) and Paralellomma vittatum is only on Orchidaceae.

Leaf-mine: Large blotch with a group of some larvae. At the start of the mine a group of elliptic egg shells.

Forms large blotch mines (as shown). The larval development is rapid (taking only 13 days). The pupariuml stage then lasts for around 348 days, with adults emerging in May and June (British leafminers).

Mine of Americina vittata on Paris quadrifolia. Mine of Americina vittata on Paris quadrifolia

Mine of Paralleloma paridis on Paris quadrifolia
Image: © Brian Pitkin

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Liliaceae        
Paris quadrifolia Herb-paris British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1991: 127, as paridis

Paris

quadrifolia Herb-paris British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Stubbs in Chandler, 1978: 227, as paridis
Paris quadrifolia Herb-paris British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Polygonatum       Stubbs in Chandler, 1978: 227
Polygonatum       Mark Wilson, via Facebook Group
Polygonatum x hydridum Garden Solomon's Seal British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Brian Pitkin (personal observation)

Hosts elsewhere:

Liliaceae        
Convallaria       Hering, 1957, as paridis
Convallaria majalis Lily-of-the-valley British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Maianthemum       Hering, 1957, as paridis
Maianthemum bifolium May Lily   Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Paris       Hering, 1957, as paridis and vittatum
Paris quadrifolia Herb-paris British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata

Plantathera       Hering, 1957, as paridis
Plantathera bifolia     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Plantathera chlorantha     Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Polygonatum       Hering, 1957, as paridis
Polygonatum multiflorum Solomon's-seal British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Polygonatum odoratum Angular Solomon's-seal British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
Polygonatum verticillatum Whorled Solomon's-seal   Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata

Time of year - mines: April to May (British leafminers).

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including Berkshire (VC22), Cambridgeshire (VC29), Gloucestershire, Yorkshire, Cumberland (VC70), Stirlingshire (VC86), Perthshire and Forfar (British leafminers) and Hampshire (The Warren, Hawkley (pers. obs.); East Cornwall (VC2), East Kent (VC15), East Ross (VC106), Herefordshire (VC36), North Ebudes (VC104), and Warwickshire (NBN Gateway, as Paralleloma vittatum); Surrey (Brian Pitkin,personal, observation); Guernsey, Channel Is. (Mark Wilson, via Facebook Group).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Parallelomma paridis, as Parallelomma vittatum
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Belgium, Czech Republic, Danish mainland, Estonia, French mainland, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia (North), Slovakia, Spanish mainland, Sweden, Switzerland. Also recorded from the Nearctic region (Michelsen in Fauna Europaea, as Parallelomma vittatum).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Paris quadrifolia, Plantathera chlorantha, Polygonatum multiflorum, Polygonatum odoratum, Polygonatum verticillatum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Unknown.



External links: Search the internet:

Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa, as Americina vittata
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea, as Parallelomma vittatum
NBN Gateway, as Parallelomma vittatum
NHM UK Checklist

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