The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Liriomyza eupatoriana Spencer, 1954
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]


Liriomyza eupatoriana Spencer, 1954c. Entomologist's mon. Mag. 90: 217
Liriomyza eupatoriana Spencer, 1954c; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 51 (figs 164-5), 54, 114
Liriomyza eupatoriana Spencer, 1954c; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the World Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 287, 288 (figs 1102-3), 289.


Leaf-mine: Mine filling apex of leaf segment, with short final section extending further into leaf. Pupation normally in leaf at end of mine.

Corridor, almost invariably in the ultimate cm of the tip of a leaf segment. The corridor is contorted so strongly that a compact secondary blotch is formed. When exeptionally the mine is not in the leaf tip, it is closely adjoining the leaf margin; never is a mine formed in the leaf centre. Frass irregular, in black threads and lumps, frequently at wide intervals, on alternate sides of the mine. The mine is upper-surface, except for the very last section that is lower-surface. Here pupation takes place. The puparium projects for about half of its length out of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A convoluted upper side gallery that may form a secondary blotch filling apex of leaf segment. Frass in closely spaced grains that may form streaks or strings (British leafminers).

Mine of Liriomyza eupatoriana on Eupatorium cannabinum Image: Rob Edmunds (British leafminers)
Mine of Liriomyza eupatoriana on Eupatorium cannabinum
Image: © Rob Edmunds (British leafminers)

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Asteraceae        
Eupatorium       Robbins, 1991: 114
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. British leafminers
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 113

Hosts elsewhere:

Asteraceae        
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1990: 287
Eupatorium cannabinum Hemp-agrimony British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-August.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Wiltshire (Heddington) and Cambridge (Chippenham Fen) (Spencer, 1972b: 54).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Liriomyza eupatoriana
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe, including Germany (von Tschirnhaus, 1999), Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Eupatorium cannabinum

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus avesta (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa maculipes Thomson, 1895 Braconidae: Alysiinae
Eurytenes abnormis (Wesmael, 1835) Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius pallipes Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers

Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
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Last updated 27-Jul-2016 Brian Pitkin Top of page