Leaf-mine: Mine filling apex of leaf segment, with short final section extending
further into leaf. Pupation normally in leaf at end of mine.
almost invariably in the ultimate cm of the tip of a leaf segment.
The corridor is contorted so strongly that a compact secondary blotch
is formed. When exeptionally the mine is not in the leaf tip, it
is closely adjoining the leaf margin; never is a mine formed in
the leaf centre. Frass irregular, in black threads and lumps, frequently
at wide intervals, on alternate sides of the mine. The mine is upper-surface,
except for the very last section that is lower-surface. Here pupation
takes place. The puparium projects for about half of its length
out of the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
A convoluted upper side gallery that may form a secondary blotch filling apex of leaf segment. Frass in closely spaced grains that may form streaks or strings (British
of Liriomyza eupatoriana
on Eupatorium cannabinum
Image: © Rob Edmunds (British
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: June-August.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Wiltshire (Heddington) and Cambridge
(Chippenham Fen) (Spencer, 1972b:
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe, including Germany (von
Tschirnhaus, 1999), Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary,
Italian mainland, Lithuania, Poland, Spanish mainland and Yugoslavia
(Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: