Leaf-mine: Mines visible from a distance as long, elegant corridors in the
leaf upper-surface, often several in a leaf. The corridors run towwards
to insertion of the the underwater petiole. From this point the
larvae descend as borers into the petiole and finally pupate there.
A part of the pupariria is thin-walled and emerges in August. The other
pupariria are thick-walled; they hibernate in the petiole and rise the
the surface next spring, after the petiole has rotted away (Hering,
1947a) - see also Bladmineerders van Europa.
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Some of the puparium is thin-walled and emerges in August. Others are
thick-walled; they hibernate in the petiole and rise the the surface
next spring, after the petiole has rotted away (Hering,
Stubbs in Chandler (1978)
did not indicate whether his host records were British or Foreign
and are therefore tentatively included under 'Hosts in Britain'
and 'Hosts elsewhere'.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: August.
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in England including
Warwickshire (Bedworth and Longford) (Robbins,
1991: 28), Bedfordshire (VC30), Cambridgeshire (VC29), County Durham (VC66), East Gloucestershire (VC33),
East Norfolk (VC27), Huntingdonshire (VC31), Northamptonshire (VC32), South Lancashire (VC59),
South Lincolnshire (VC53), Surrey and West Gloucestershire (NBN
NBN Grid Map:
elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark
(Fabricius, 1794), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Gosseries,
1991b), Austria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, French mainland,
Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Russia
- North, Sweden and Switzerland (de Jong in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.