Half-mine; a one cm long straight tunnel along the midline of
the upperside of the leaf; larva rests in this retreat during the
day, emerging to devour the upper epidermis of the leaf during the
hours of darkness. Feeding occurs from both ends of the retreat
to a similar degree (Bland, 1994a).
The larvae of a number of species of Chironomidae (non-biting midges)
live in tunnels in decaying leaf sheaths under water. Their tunnels
are open at both ends, and the larvae feed on particles they obtain
from a water current they create in the tunnels. They do not feed
on tissues of their 'hostplant' and therefore are not strictly miners
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Cranston in Chandler, 1978
(1978) did not indicate whether his host records were British or
Foreign and are therefore tentatively included under 'Hosts in Britain'
and 'Hosts elsewhere'.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines: August.
of year - adults: August.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Isle of Coll (Grishipool) (Bland
and Rotheray, 1994: 35); Caernarvonshire (VC49), Cambridgeshire (VC29),
East Sussex and Monmouthshire (NBN
recorded in the Republic of Ireland (Saether and Spies, 2004 in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Grid Map:
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elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria,
Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, French mainland,
Germany, Italian mainland, Latvia, Norwegian mainland, Poland, Portuguese
mainland, Russia - Central and North, Slovakia, Spanish mainland,
Sweden. Switzerland and The Netherlands (Saether and Spies, 2004
in Fauna Europaea).
NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:
British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.