Leaf-mine: Long, lower- or upper-surface blotch in the apical part of the leaf, occupying the entire width of the blade. Frass in a few lumps. Pupation internal (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
Mandibles with two teeth, alternating. Anterior spiraculum two-armed, with 13-17 bulbs. Posterior spiraculum with four, elongated and curved bulbs and at its outside a finely spinulose black wart (Bladmineerders van Europa). The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001:
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Broadly oval, 1.5 - 2 mm long, reddish to blackish brown; rear spiracula on two low, well separated, bases (Bladmineerders van Europa).
On Poaceae (Peter Chandler, pers. comm.).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland: Currently unknown.
of year - larvae:Larvae in August - September, possibly also June; probably two generations (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Currently unknown.
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elsewhere: Czech Republic, Finland, Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.