Mine in the leaf apex. Frass in a few large lumps. Pupation within
the mine (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is described by Nowakowski (1973). Posterior spiracles at its base, laterally, with a black wart, which has an interior root; the warts are large and touch each other (Bladmineerders van Europa).
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland: Currently unknown.
of year - mines:
July-Agust (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: April-May.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Uncommon. Gloucester (Coombe
Dingle, nr. Bristol), Hereford (Woolhope), Cambridge (Chippenham
Fen) and Suffolk (Barton Mills) (Spencer, 1972b: 100, as fonsecai).
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Austria, Germany, Poland, Sweden
(Spencer, 1976: 208), Hungary
and Lithuania (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: Currently unknown.