large linear-blotch mine in the leaf blade. Pupation normally in
the mine (Spencer, 1976:
blotch, usually in the distal part of the blade. The mine is mostly
interparenchymatous, less frequently lower-surface, and rarely upper-surface.
Rather little frass, in fairly large grains, scattered in the mine.
Larva generally solitary. Pupation almost always within the mine
(Bladmineerders van Europa).
Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.
The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).
Metallic black, deeply segmented, narrowing at hind end; posterior
spiracular processes knob-like, each with 3 bulbs, at each corner
of a large, almost rectangular projection (Spencer,
The puparium is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.
Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:
of year - mines:
June-September, less often also May and October (Bladmineerders van Europa).
of year - adults: Currently unknown.
in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread (Spencer, 1972b 104) including Warwickshire (Dosthill) (Robbins,
1991: 137); Cambridgeshire and Glamorgan (NBN
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Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Sweden and
Estonia (Spencer, 1976: 190),
The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (Scheirs
and de Bruyn, 1992) and Germany (Spencer,
1976: 554), Czech Republic, French mainland, Hungary, Lithuania
and Poland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).
recorded in Japan (Spencer, 1976:
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British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere: