The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823a. Agromyzides Sveciae : 3
Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823a; Nowakowski, 1964. Dt. ent. Z. [2] 11: 188
Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823a; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 32, 34 (fig. 90), 35, 121
Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823a; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 137-139, figs 244-6.
Agromyza reptans Fallén, 1823a; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 54, 55, 57, 58 (fig. 214), 79.

Leaf-mine: Mine generally follows the leaf margin, widening from the initial linear section into an irregular broad blotch; it is dark green when fresh but quickly turns blackish (Spencer, 1972b: 34 (fig. 90); Spencer, 1976: 138-9, fig. 246).

Full depth corridor that mostly starts near the leaf margin, and never begins with a series in close, intestine-like curves. Further on the corridor strongly widens, and usually remains close to the leaf margin. Often several larvae in a mine. Frass in lumps or short rods, never in long threads (Bladmineerders van Europa).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

The larva is described by Dempewolf (2001: 49) and illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish-brown; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 139).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Urtica       Robbins, 1991: 71
Urtica dioica Common Nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Urtica dioica Common Nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 121

Hosts elsewhere:

Cannabis       Spencer, 1976: 139
Cannabis sativa Hemp British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Humulus       Spencer, 1976: 139
Mentzelia       Spencer, 1976: 139
Parietaria       Spencer, 1976: 139
Parietaria       Bladmineerders van Europa
Urtica       Spencer, 1976: 139
Urtica       Spencer, 1990: 54
Urtica dioica Common Nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Dempewolf, 2001: 49
Urtica dioica Common Nettle British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-September.

Time of year - adults: July.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including London (Hampstead), Isle of Wight, Cornwall (Helston), Suffolk (Barton Mills and Newmarket), Yorkshire (Ingleborough), Invernes (Loch Morlich) (Spencer, 1972b: 35), Warwickshire (Coventry and Keresley) (Robbins, 1991: 71), Cambridgeshire, Dumfriesshire, East Gloucestershire, East Suffolk, Glamorgan, Isle of Wight, Mid-west Yorkshire, Monmouthshire, North Somerset, Nottinghamshire, Shropshire, South Somerset, South-west Yorkshire, Stafford, Surrey, Warwickshire, West Gloucestershire and West Suffolk (NBN Atlas).

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany, Poland, Estonia, Latvia (Spencer, 1976: 129), The Netherlands (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991), Czech Republic, European Turkey, French mainland, Hungary, Italian mainland, Latvia, Lithuania, Republic of Moldova, Sardinia, Slovakia and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea). Also recorded in Canada (Spencer, 1969a: 35).

NBN Atlas links to known host species:

Cannabis sativa, Urtica dioica

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Tamarixia monesus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae
Halticoptera patellana (Dalman, 1818) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster elegans Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster hortensis Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Miscogaster rufipes Walker, 1833 Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Seladerma sabbas (Walker, 1848) Pteromalidae: Miscogastrinae
Chorebus deione (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Chorebus lateralis (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Dacnusa abdita (Haliday, 1839) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela hera (Nixon, 1937) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Heterolexis balteata (Thomson, 1895) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Atormus victus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae
Eurytenes polyzonius Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius ambiguus Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Opius singularis Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae
Phaedrotoma reptantis (Fischer, 1957) Braconidae: Opiinae
Rhogadopsis reconditor Wesmael, 1835 Braconidae: Opiinae

External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Atlas
NHM UK Checklist
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