The leaf and stem mines of British flies and other insects
 

(Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera)

by Brian Pitkin, Willem Ellis, Colin Plant and Rob Edmunds

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Agromyza alnibetulae Hendel, 1931
[Diptera: Agromyzidae]

Agromyza alnibetulae Hendel, 1931. Fliegen palaearkt. Reg. 6(2): 101
Agromyza alnibetulae Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1969. Beitr. Ent. 19: 6
Agromyza alnibetulae Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1972b. Handbk ident. Br. Ins. 10(5g): 36 (figs 107-8), 39, 109
Agromyza alnibetulae Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1976. Fauna ent. Scand. 5(1): 93, figs 129-130
Agromyza alnibetulae Hendel, 1931; Spencer, 1990. Host specialization in the world Agromyzidae (Diptera) : 54, 60 (fig. 227), 61, 100, 178.


Leaf-mine: Larva forming a narrow, unusually long, upper surface leaf-mine up to 12 cms, sometimes considerably widening at end; young leaves are frequently distorted (Spencer, 1976: 93, fig. 130).

An unusually long, upper-surface corridor that widens only little and winds freely through the leaf. Frass in two neat rows. Pupation outside the mine; exit slit (always?) in the lower epidermis (Bladmineerders van Europa).

A long, greenish, winding, upper surface gallery which sometimes broadens considerably at the end (British leafminers).

Larva: The larvae of flies are leg-less maggots without a head capsule (see examples). They never have thoracic or abdominal legs. They do not have chewing mouthparts, although they do have a characteristic cephalo-pharyngeal skeleton (see examples), usually visible internally through the body wall.

Yellow. Anterior spiracles each with 10 bulbs, posterior spiracles with 3 bulbs (Skuhravá and Roques, 2000). The larva is illustrated in Bladmineerders van Europa.

Puparium: The puparia of flies are formed within the hardened last larval skin or puparium and as a result sheaths enclosing head appendages, wings and legs are not visible externally (see examples).

Reddish brown; posterior spiracles each with 3 bulbs (Spencer, 1976: 93).

Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland:

Betulaceae        
Betula       Mines in BMNH
Betula       British leafminers
Betula       Spencer, 1972b: 39
Betula       Robbins, 1991: 73
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Mines in BMNH
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Robbins, 1989: 18
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al.

Robbins, 1989: 18.

Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Spencer, 1972b: 109
Carpinus       British leafminers

Hosts elsewhere:

Betulaceae        
Betula       Spencer, 1976: 93
Betula       Spencer, 1990: 54
Betula pendula Silver Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa
Betula pubescens Downy Birch British Wild Flowers by John Somerville et al. Bladmineerders van Europa

Time of year - mines: June-November.

Time of year - adults: Currently unknown.

Distribution in Great Britain & Ireland: Widespread in Britain including London (Hampstead), Kent (Darenth), Surrey (Oxshott), Yorkshire (Malham Tarn), Westmorland (Grasmere), Denbighshire (Cefn-y-bedd) (Spencer, 1972b: 39), Inner Hebrides (Isle of Coll, Arinagour) (Bland, 1992), Warwickshire (Coventry) (Robbins, 1991: 73) and Hampshire (Fleet) (British leafminers), Cambridgeshire (VC29), East Kent (VC15), East Ross (VC106), East Sutherland (VC107), Hertfordshire (VC20), Leicesterahire, Mid-west Yorkshire (VC64), Middlesex (VC21), Shropshire (VC40), South Wiltshire (VC8), South-east Yorkshire (VC61), South-west Yorkshire (VC63), Stafford and Surrey (VC17), West Suffolk (VC26) and Worcestershire (VC37) (NBN Gateway).

Also recorded in the Republic of Ireland: Co. Clare. (Spencer, 1972b: 39).

NBN Grid Map:

NBN Grid Map

Agromyza alnibetulae
NBN Grid Map : NBN Terms and Conditions

Maps are only displayed if the NBN server is active. N.B. Only publicly available records, if any, are shown by default

Distribution elsewhere: Widespread in continental Europe including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden (Spencer, 1976: 93), The Netherlands, Luxembourg (Bladmineerders van Europa), Belgium (de Bruyn and von Tschirnhaus, 1991) and Germany (Spencer, 1976: 546), Austria, Corsica, Czech Republic, Italian mainland, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Switzerland (Martinez in Fauna Europaea).

NBN Interactive Grid Maps of known host species:

Betula pendula, Betula pubescens

British and Irish Parasitoids in Britain and elsewhere:

Chalcidoidea  
Chrysocharis amyite (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis orbicularis (Nees, 1834) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Chrysocharis pentheus (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Entedoninae
Cirrospilus vittatus Walker, 1838 Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Pnigalio soemius (Walker, 1839) Eulophidae: Eulophinae
Ichneumonoidea  
Chorebus credne (Nixon, 1944) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Exotela phryne (Nixon, 1954) Braconidae: Alysiinae
Atormus victus (Haliday, 1837) Braconidae: Opiinae


External links: Search the internet:
Biodiversity Heritage Library
Bladmineerders van Europa
British leafminers
Encyclopedia of Life
Fauna Europaea
NBN Gateway
NHM UK Checklist
Find using Google
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